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The latest revision of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans provides the basis for all Federal nutrition information and education programs for healthy Americans generic 250 mg sumycin mastercard. They are for healthy people two years of age and over purchase sumycin 250 mg on line, and are not for people who need special diets because of disease and conditions that interfere with normal nutrition buy discount sumycin 250 mg. Generally, these guidelines can be followed for a short period of time by people with chronic diseases until more specific advice can be 6-6 obtained from a Registered Dietitian. If one occasionally eats foods that are higher in fat, sugars, or sodium, balance them during the day with other foods that are lower. These Guidelines offer tips for helping to choose foods for a healthful diet: Eat a variety of foods. The nutrients should come from a variety of foods, not from a few highly fortified foods or supplements. A varied diet is defined below by the Food Guide Pyramid with suggested numbers of servings from vegetables, fruits, grain products, dairy products and meat/meat substitutes. A "healthy" body weight depends on the percentage of body weight as fat, the location of fat deposition, and the existence of any weight-related medical problems. However, using tables with suggested weight-for-height-and-age is a popular method of estimating recommended body weight. A number of studies suggest a possible association between excess body weight and several cancers including breast, uterine, colon, gallbladder, and prostate. Of all the dietary factors thought to affect cancer, fat has been the subject of the most research. Substantial evidence suggests that excessive fat intake increases the risk of developing cancers of the breast, colon, and prostate. The National Cancer Institute and National Cholesterol Education Program recommend reducing total fat intake to 30% or less of total calorie intake. This level of fat intake can be achieved by a change in eating habits and is also an effective way to reduce total calories. Consuming more vegetables, fruits, breads, cereals, potatoes, pasta, rice, and dry beans and peas are emphasized especially for their complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and other components linked to good health. Some of the benefits from a high fiber diet may be from the food that provides the fiber, not from fiber alone, so fiber from foods is recommended over fiber obtained from supplements. Limit all sugars table sugar, brown sugar, corn sweeteners, syrups, honey, and molasses. Limit the foods high in sugars, such as prepared baked goods, candies, sweet desserts, soft drinks, and fruit-flavored punches. Eat fresh fruits, unsweetened frozen fruits, or canned fruits packed in water, juice, or light syrup. Limit use of high-sodium condiments (soy sauce, steak sauce, catsup), pickles and relishes, and salty snacks. Use only moderate amounts of cured or processed meats, most canned vegetables and soups. A reduction in salt (and sodium) intake will benefit those people whose blood pressure rises with salt intake. Drinking alcoholic beverages has few, if any, net health benefits and is linked to many health problems and accidents. Therefore, individuals who drink alcoholic beverages are advised to use moderation. Moderate drinking is defined as no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. Heavy drinkers are at increased risk for various cancers such as oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. Pregnant women should completely avoid alcoholic beverages throughout their pregnancy. Coordination and judgment are reduced by alcohol; this can lead to serious falls and on-the-job injuries. Limit caffeinated beverages, alcohol, and other diuretics; however, some data indicate that drinking tea, especially green tea, may have health benefits due to antioxidant properties. A dietary supplement is any product intended for ingestion as a supplement to food intake. Such supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals and other plant-derived substances, amino acids, food concentrates and extracts. For anyone who eats a reasonably balanced diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables, developing a vitamin deficiency is unlikely. The minerals needed in a healthy diet are mostly metals and salts, such as iron, phosphorus, and calcium. National trends have shown decreasing intake of calcium-containing milk, yogurt and cheese. Sufficient calcium intake is particularly important for women, especially those who have relatives with osteoporosis (weakness and 6-8 fractures of the spine and other bones). Weight- bearing exercise is a strong stimulus for your body to absorb more calcium and to develop and maintain stronger bones. Serious side effects and even deaths have occurred in people taking unregulated products. For example, there have been over 800 reported adverse reactions and at least 39 deaths associated with ephedra-containing substances. They encourage eating an assortment of foods that will provide the nutrients needed without contributing too much fat, sugars, and sodium to the total diet. But following these Guidelines helps people obtain nutrients needed and may reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases. The Food Pyramid The Food Guide Pyramid was designed to aid individuals in their selection of appropriate types and amounts of foods that could form the foundation of an adequate diet. The overall message from the Food Guide Pyramid is to select foods that together give all the essential nutrients one needs to maintain health without eating too many calories or too much fat. The size of the food group piece corresponds to the recommended number of daily servings from that food group.

Once the faintness passed buy sumycin 500mg low price, he resumed the exposure exercises until his anxiety decreased discount 500mg sumycin fast delivery. For homework over the coming week sumycin 500mg fast delivery, Zack practiced the finger prick tests daily with the help of his parents and his girlfriend. The following week, Zack and his therapist prac- ticed watching several surgery videos, at first using the applied tension exercises, and later watching them with- out tensing. At the end of the two hours, Zack was able to watch videos depicting cardiac surgery, removal of a facial mole, and a patient receiving stitches, all with only minimal anxiety. In the end, Zack was quite happy with his progress, and he was glad he had stuck with the treatment. Although he was still nervous about watching live 92 overcoming medical phobias surgery, he decided to work on that fear on his own, after starting medical school. Jacob—dentists Jacob had been fearful of the dentist for as long as he could remember. As soon as he became an adult, he stopped going on a regular basis and only saw a dentist if he had a problem that was causing him pain (which happened about every five years). When he did see the dentist, he insisted on being knocked out with a general anesthetic. His main concern was that the experi- ence would be painful; he remembered having a number of uncomfortable visits to the dentist as a child. By the time Jacob decided to seek treatment at age forty, he had several cavities that needed to be filled and his teeth hadn’t been cleaned for years. His children were aware of his fear, and he worried that some of his fear might rub off on them. When he made the appointment, he had a choice of several hygienists, so he requested to see the one with the reputation for being the most gentle. He had several teeth to fill and one that was likely to require a root canal and crown. When he made his first appointment, Jacob asked whether the dentist and hygienist could begin with less frightening procedures, such as examining his teeth and taking X-rays, and save more difficult procedures such as cleanings, injections, and fillings for subsequent appoint- ments. In fact, the dentist offered to spend an entire appointment just helping Jacob get used to the feeling of having various dental instruments (mirror, probe, scaler, suction tube, and so forth) in his mouth. First, he decided to focus just on the procedures he would have done at each appointment, rather than thinking about all the dental work he needed to have done. He also thought about how his wife, coworkers, and friends often told him that the discomfort they experience at the dentist is always manageable, and how the procedures used during dental treatment have changed since he was younger. Finally, he asked the dentist and hygienist to describe to him what procedures would be done, what they were likely to feel like, and how long they would take. Although the first visit was frighten- ing, he was reassured because he knew he wouldn’t have any dental work done that day. After having his teeth cleaned and his cav- ities filled, he decided to get his root canal and crown done. Although terrified of the procedure, he was 94 overcoming medical phobias reassured when his dentist said that the discomfort would be no worse than that he experienced during the other procedures. In the end, he felt almost no pain despite the reputation root canals have for being painful. Ella—doctors and hospitals Ella had been afraid of visiting doctors and hospitals since she was a teenager, though she was unsure what ini- tially triggered the fear. She was uncomfortable being examined and undergoing tests and, to some extent, was afraid she might find out she had a problem that she didn’t know she had. She wasn’t sure why she didn’t like hospitals, but she avoided them at all costs, even if it meant not visiting friends and relatives in the hospital. Now, at age fifty-five, Ella had become increasingly con- cerned about her phobia. She was at an age when it seemed more important than ever to have regular medical checkups. Also, her parents were older, and she worried that they might soon need to spend time in a hospital and thatshewouldn’tbeabletovisitthem. Shefinally decided to seek treatment when her husband was sched- uled to have his hip replaced. Ella’s treatment began with developing two hierar- chies—one for doctor visits and the other for hospitals. The hierarchy took into account the variables confronting your fear 95 that contributed to her fear, including the sex of the doc- tor (female doctors were easier than males), the age of the doctor (doctors younger than forty and older than sixty made her more anxious), the type of procedure being done (she was most nervous about procedures used to detect cancer, such as a mammogram), and the type of doctor (family doctors were easier than specialists). The hospital hierarchy included items ranging in difficulty from relatively easy (for example, spending time in the lobby or cafeteria of a hospital) to more difficult (for example, walking through the halls in the emergency room or visiting someone in a hospital room). She made appointments for physical exams three times per week over a two-week period. The next four exams were with other doctors (recommended by her family doctor), starting with female physicians and working up to male physicians. Ella also arranged to have a number of tests done, including blood work, a mammogram, and a colonoscopy. Over the course of these two weeks, her fear of doctors decreased to a mod- erate level. Ella decided to continue her exposure prac- tices with doctors about once per week over the next month while also starting to confront her fear of hospitals. During the next few weeks, Ella made a point of vis- iting hospitals about four times per week for an hour or two, usually on her way home from work. She visited the hospital where her husband was scheduled to have his 96 overcoming medical phobias surgery, as well as several others. She began with the eas- ier items on her hierarchy (for example, visiting her fam- ily doctor, who was a woman in her early fifties) and worked her way up to the more difficult items (for exam- ple, seeing a young male dermatology resident for a spe- cialist appointment). Eventually, she had practiced all of the items on her hierarchy except for visiting a loved one in the hospital; at the time, she had no friends or rela- tives who were hospital patients. However, when her hus- band had his surgery, she was able to visit him daily with only minimal anxiety. It requires time and patience, as well as a willingness to feel uncomfortable, at least temporarily.

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Excessive polypharmacy is another type of polypharmacy that is defined by medication count and generally uses cut points of 10 or more B cheap 250mg sumycin with mastercard. This definition is becoming increasingly studied as the population continues to age and use more medications quality 500 mg sumycin. Alternately cheap 250mg sumycin mastercard, polypharmacy has also been defined as taking at least one medication that is not clinically indicated. This indication-based definition is argued to be more practical and appropriate because it is independent of the multiple medications necessary to treat the multiple comorbidities elderly patients are likely to have. Those that lack an indication or effectiveness or are determined to be a therapeutic duplication are considered as polypharmacy or unnecessary medications. An example would be a patient started on a proton pump inhibitor while an inpatient for stress ulcer prophylaxis. If the medication is continued on an outpatient basis, this medication would be considered unnecessary because there is no longer an indication for the medication. In the United States, about half of elderly patients admitted to hospitals take seven or more medications. Polypharmacy was defined as at least nine medications, a higher threshold compared with other studies in ambulatory or hospitalized settings. However, one study of 2014 residents, the majority of whom were 85 years or older, in 193 assisted living facilities reported a mean of 5. They reported that 57% of patients were taking at least one unnecessary medication. Hanlon and colleagues25 reported similar findings; lack of indication was the most common reason for unnecessary medications in a study of 397 hospitalized elderly veterans. Common unnecessary medications include gastrointesti- nal, central nervous system, and therapeutic nutrient/mineral agents. A study of ambulatory Medi- care patients revealed that the most common drug classes prescribed in a 1-year period were cardiovascular agents, antibiotics, diuretics, analgesics, antihyperlipi- demics, and gastrointestinal agents. The most common nonprescription medications consumed by older adults were analge- sics (aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen), cough and cold medications (diphen- hydramine and pseudoephedrine), vitamins and minerals (multivitamins, vitamins E and C, calcium), and herbal products (ginseng, Ginkgo biloba extract). Aside from increased direct drug costs, patients are at higher risk for adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, nonadherence, diminished functional status, and various geriatric syndromes. In a prospective, randomized controlled longitudinal multicenter European study of 1601 community-dwelling elderly adults, 46% of patients had a potential drug-drug interaction. The risk of drug-disease interactions has been shown to increase as the number of drugs as well as the number of comorbidities increase. The prevalence rates should be interpreted cautiously, because they may be overestimated due to how interactions and their clinical importance are defined. These interactions are significant because they may decrease the efficacy or increase the risk of toxicity of a drug. As a result, the prescriber may change the dose or add more medications, further increasing the risk for other interactions and side effects. Nonadherence Complex medication regimens related to polypharmacy can lead to nonadherence in the elderly. The number of medications has been shown to be a stronger predictor of nonadherence than advancing age, with higher rates of nonadherence as the number of medications increases. Increased Health Service Utilization and Resources The use of multiple medications leads to increased costs for both the patient and the health system as a whole. Whereas the proper use of medications may lead to decreased hospital and emergency room admissions, the use of inappropriate medications may not only increase patients’ drug costs but cause them to use more health care services. A retrospective population study in Ireland concluded that approximately 9% of the total drug-related expenditures were on potentially inappro- priate medications. A retrospective cohort study of elderly Japanese patients reported that patients with polypharmacy were at risk of having a potentially inappropriate medication, which then increased the risk for hospitalization and outpatient visits and resulted in a 33% increase in medical costs. In a review of 42 cohorts of medical inpatients composed of mostly older adults, the rate of delirium ranged from 11% to 42%. Another study of 156 hospitalized older adults found that the number of medications was an independent risk factor for delirium. Similarly, drug classes that can exacerbate dementia are benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and anticholinergic drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants. A cohort study of 294 Finnish elders reported that those with polypharmacy were found to have a decrease of 1. Twenty-two percent of patients with no polypharmacy were found to have impaired cognition as opposed to 33% and 54% with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy, respectively. Psychotropic and cardiovascular medications are of particular concern because of their association with increased risk of falls. Interestingly, the use of five or more medications was seen in 48% percent of the population before they fractured a hip compared with 88% after the hip fracture. The proportion of patients taking 10 or more medication as well as those taking three or more psychotropic medication also increased after hip fracture. The risk of further events is likely to increase, and providers should be aware of this trend and the risk that each type of medication carries with regard to falls. Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence is yet another problem that commonly affects older adults, and the use of multiple medications can exacerbate the problem. A retrospective study of 128 patients found that approximately 60% of patients with urinary incontinence were on at least four medications. A survey conducted in community-dwelling elders aged 65 and older reported that polyphar- macy was associated with poorer nutritional status. Higher medication use was associated with a decreased intake of soluble and nonsoluble fiber, fat-soluble vitamins, B vitamins, and minerals and an increased intake of cholesterol, glucose, and sodium. Only 10% of patients with no polypharmacy were found to be either malnourished or at risk of malnourishment as compared with 50% in those with excessive polypharmacy. Principles for Optimizing Drug Use in the Elderly Extensive medication histories should be obtained at the initial visit and updated with each subsequent encounter. Medication histories should include both prescription and nonprescription medications and any other health-related food or drink the patient is consuming. If the patient cannot bring in the actual products, an updated list of all medications should be kept with the patient to give to all providers so health records can be kept as up-to-date as possible.

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