By Y. Falk. The Rockefeller University. 2019.

The importance of sterile techniques using maximal barrier precautions for short-term central catheters cannot be overemphasized and should become a part of house staff training [3 order reminyl pills in toronto,4] generic 8 mg reminyl with mastercard. A recent well-designed study found a 20% decrease in strictures and a decrease in the need for 2 parenteral nutrition with high-dose methylprednisilone (1 g/1 cheap reminyl 8mg with visa. Glucagon, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone, and, to a lesser degree, thyroxine promote the formation of glucose in the fasted state and in general counteract the actions of insulin. Unfortunately, it must be given early, before the agent–enzyme bond matures or “ages” which occurs in as little as 2 minutes for soman but takes 3 to 4 hours for sarin. It can be readily spread from mother to neonate at the time of vaginal delivery—a common mode of transmission in developing countries. Overview Some antimicrobial drugs selectively interfere with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall—a structure that mammalian cells do not possess. Radiography Although pulmonary embolism is not typically perceptible on chest radiography, pulmonary oligemia, pulmonary infarction, and cor pulmonale can have radiographic manifestations. Humans use dietary folate to synthesize the critical folate derivative, tetrahydrofolic acid. Sexually Transmitted Infections 927 Syphilis past intravenous drug use, tuberculosis, malaria, hepa- titis, myeloma and connective tissue disorders such as Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, systemic lupus erythematosus, among several other which produces a painless primary lesion within 9–90 possibilities [253]. Use of topical and needs to be managed as for any other postmenopausal oestrogen can reduce this difficulty. Microabscesses of the renal parenchyma with subsequent candiduria are frequently present among those with disseminated candidiasis. Double en bloc lung transplants have been abandoned because of technical difficulties related to the bronchial anastomotic blood supply. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Chopra V, Anand S, Hickner A, et al: Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The opening is carried proximally along the inferior aspect of the aortic arch to the level of the innominate artery. An altered mental state or an otherwise unexplained respiratory alkalosis may be the presenting feature of sepsis. It usually occurs first around the eyes, then above the ankles and above dorsum of the feet. Even therapies used for allergic asthma (such as omalizumab) are now also approved for idiopathic urticaria. Intra-aortic balloon pump and cardiopulmonary bypass have been used successfully in patients with circulatory collapse. Thoracic disc prolapses are rare 110 Lower limbs Prolapsed disc Exiting root Compressed root C1/2 C2 C2 C2/3 C3 C3 C3/4 C4 C4 C4/5 C5 C5 C5/6 C6 C6 C6/7 C7 C7 C7/T1 C8 C8 L1/2 L1 L2 L2/3 L2 L3 L3/4 L3 L4 L4/5 L4 L5 L5/S1 L5 S1 Table 5. Maneeton B, Manneton N, Srisurapanont M, et al: Quetiapine versus haloperidol in the treatment of delirium: a double-blind, randomized, controlled, trial. With most mu agonists, severe respiratory depression can occur and may result in death from acute opioid overdose. And of course, modern society is long past the notion that menstrual bleeding is a cleans- ing event, a detoxifcation. Four stages detectable on imaging: a) Early cerebritis (edema, no ring enhancement). When the pressure differential across the pump is lower, such as during ventricular systole, pump flow is greater. Increased intracompartmental pressure can lead to venous congestion and resultant muscle ischemia within the involved compartment(s). Superficial bites over the nerve may be taken, or in some cases, the nerve with its pedicle can be mobilized away from the pericardium. The use of milliequivalent units to describe phosphorus concentrations in a solution is often mistakenly applied. Yet even with the expanded immunosuppressive armamentarium of the 21st century, it remains difficult to finely balance the suppression of the host immune system (to allow acceptance and even tolerance of the graft) without oversuppressing immune function (and thereby leaving the host vulnerable to opportunistic infection and malignancy). Many of these screen­ into a high‐risk (or test‐positive) group and a low‐risk (or ing tests have been discussed in other chapters in this test‐negative) group. Evidence of internal and external injuries must the score should be reported separately as compared to be sought and any temperature instability must be treated. Other rare causes of pseudohemoptysis are self-inflicted injuries, other bizarre tactics in the malingering patient seeking hospitalization (factitious hemoptysis), and rifampin overdose (red man syndrome) imbuing a reddish hue to secretions. Severe hypoglycemia can result from inadvertent substitution of an oral hypoglycemic agent for a different medication. Organs from donors with serologic evidence of syphilis can be used as long as the recipients are given adequate antibiotic prophylaxis. Iron deficiency, the most common nutritional deficiency, results from a negative iron balance due to depletion of iron stores and/or inadequate intake, such as acute or chronic blood loss, menstruating or pregnant women, or periods of accelerated growth in children. The most frequent neurologic presentation is with paresthesias, which may be diffuse or focal, and result from gas bubble formation in the skin, joints, peripheral nerves, or spinal cord. Hemoperfusion hastens drug clearance and should be considered in patients with cardiovascular compromise or failure to improve despite aggressive supportive treatment. The potential consequences of severe hypophosphatemia are impaired oxygen delivery to the tissues due to decreased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels, muscle weakness, and rhabdomyolysis. The symptoms of incontinence and obstructed defecation; fibres of the paracolpium arise from a broad area on the and sexual dysfunction. Therefore, immediate-release aspirin should be taken at least 60 minutes before or at least 8 hours after ibuprofen. Loss of a kidney during fetal life: malformations on prenatal ultrasound imaging (part 1): long‐term consequences and lessons learned. Management of these children is directed towards diligent Vulval skin disease is not uncommon in children, par- hygiene of the perineum. Any organ system can be affected, and symptoms range from a pruritic skin rash (“the creeps”), cough (“the chokes”), and joint pain to paraplegia, vertigo, altered level of consciousness, seizures, shock, and apnea. This is particularly challenging for patients who are not yet being dialyzed; once patients are on dialysis, they are allowed more liberal fluid intake and can receive a greater intake of carbohydrates, protein, and fat, limited only by the rate of dialytic fluid and solute removal. Many studies have shown the benefits of lithium as a treatment for bipolar disorder, acute mania, and bipolar depression; however, recommendations concerning its clinical use vary among international guidelines. If more than 60 years or immunocompromised, use ceftriaxone or cefotaxime, plus ampicillin and vancomycin.

Furthermore buy 8mg reminyl mastercard, for many couples 4mg reminyl sale, tubal occlusion at the time of cesarean section or immediately afer a difcult labor and delivery is not the best time for the procedure order reminyl with a mastercard. Mechanical hemostasis with hemoclips have the advantage of minimal tissue damage, leading to potentially faster ulcer healing and it has been found effective for ulcer bleeding alone or in conjunction with other therapies. Inoculation of soil into the skin as a consequence of trauma can also result in a Nocardia soft tissue infection that mimics sporotrichosis. Water will flow from a region and electrolytes on the basis of body weight and surface of low to high osmolality. The relative lack of effects of changes in deiodinase expression and activity on serum thyroid hormone levels have also been shown in various deiodinase knockout mice models, as serum T appears preserved even3 though rT levels are undetectable [3 27,28]. The National Institute for S, one of its cofactors, fall during the first two trimesters. Inappropriate Size of the Prosthesis It is pointless to attempt to insert a prosthesis whose internal orifice is larger than the orifice of the left ventricular outflow tract or aortic annulus. A randomised controlled trial of management strategies for acute infective conjunctivitis in general practice. In the “difficult road,” patients experience increasing levels of confusion, restlessness, and agitated delirium (see management of delirium in this chapter). Byhahn C, Lischke V, Meininger D, et al: Perio-operative complications during percutaneous tracheostomy in obese patients. Hyperuricemia Loop diuretics compete with uric acid for the renal secretory systems, thus blocking its secretion and, in turn, may cause or exacerbate gouty attacks. Identification and electrophysiological characteristics 61 Dubicke A, Andersson P, Fransson E et al. Flat areas such as the chest and back can be treated with fast repetition rates, which shorten treatment times. Tofacitinib treatment may also increase the risk for new primary malignancy and opportunistic infections. Lower either dispensed from a pump or as a low‐volume daily doses of oestrogen are less likely to cause breast tender­ sachet. None of these systems has been found to have positive predictive values or sensitivities which make them clinically useful in identification of individual women at risk. Temazepam and flurazepam have a longer duration of action and reduce nighttime awakenings but have a greater risk of daytime sedation or hangover effect compared with zaleplon. In a series of heart transplant recipients, the incidence of cholelithiasis ranged from 30% to 39%, which is more than twice that expected for age- and gender-matched controls [42]. Of note, there are special stains for synovial fluid that can be helpful as the clinical picture warrants; these include Congo red staining for amyloid arthropathy. Constant monitoring of the pressure in the superior vena cava can reveal any pressure increase and thereby alert the surgical team. Patch enlargement of the aortotomy with a Hemashield Dacron patch allows ample room for the prosthetic struts and ensures a safe closure. Nafcillin and oxacillin are exceptions to the rule and are primarily metabolized in the liver. It is highly irritating to tissues and must be injected into a large vein with precautions to avoid extravasation. In states of potassium depletion, potassium secretion in the cortical collecting tubule is reduced, and potassium reabsorption stimulated. A patch of glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium or bovine pericardium is cut in the appropriate shape and size and sewn into place with a continuous 3-0 Prolene suture. Adverse events have been reported to occur in about 20% of critically ill patients, with roughly half reportedly being preventable [99]. This requires simultaneous estimation of serum for refractory ascites: a meta-analysis. Initial studies of the anticonvulsant topiramate observed weight loss in patients taking the medication. Nursing staff in particular is vulnerable to physical violence by patients and families, with between 25% and 80% of acute-care nurses having reported patient violence in one form or another [47,48]. Mathis G, Blank W, Reissig A, et al: Thoracic ultrasound for diagnosing pulmonary embolism: a prospective multicenter study of 352 patients. Though patients with more severe injuries were more likely to be hypernatremic, likely owing to more aggressive osmotherapy, there was an independent association between a finding of serum sodium over 160 mEq per L and mortality. Pigmentary changes in photoaged skin are due to dysregulation of melanin synthesis and deposition in skin. Decrease fluence and/or increase spot size to achieve desirable endpoints in the remaining treatment areas. The amount of bicarbonate and supplementary potassium necessary to achieve and maintain an alkaline urine depends on the severity of poisoning (Table 122. Although the flexible bronchoscope is usually the instrument of choice for diagnosing lower respiratory tract problems, rigid bronchoscopy is preferred in cases of massive, uncontrolled hemorrhage because patency of the airway is maintained more effectively during the procedure (see Interventional Pulmonary Chapter 182). Among adults, infectious mononucleosis, often with massive tonsillar hypertrophy leading to stridor, and a unilateral pharyngeal mass should be considered when patients complain of sore throat and dysphagia. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy, myocardial infarction and metabolic derangements can alter electrogram amplitude transiently or permanently. Inappropriate use of strictly crystalloid resuscitation, when blood/blood products are indicated, can lead to increased mortality. Disopyramide produces a greater negative inotropic effect, and unlike the other drugs, it causes peripheral vasoconstriction. Leptospirosis, an infectious • Signs of meningeal irritation or altered sensorium or disease that affects humans and animals, is considered convulsions. Suturing is continued superiorly and inferiorly around the lateral margins of the orifices of the superior and inferior venae cavae. Metabolic derangements from carbon monoxide poisoning or thiamine deficiency (Wernicke– Korsakoff syndrome) can also produce hypothermia by affecting the hypothalamus [32–37]. Decreases of capillary flow provoke cellular ischemia and anaerobic metabolism with ensuing acidosis [18]. General Complications of Heart Transplantation Right Heart Failure and Pulmonary Hypertension Frequently acute right heart failure in the postoperative heart transplant patient is secondary to pulmonary hypertension. The systemic pressure can be lowered to a satisfactory level by temporarily removing some volume through the venous line.

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Myocardial ischemia order reminyl 8mg with visa, cardiac dysrhythmias purchase reminyl line, and cardiac conduction abnormalities may occur and should be evaluated through routine electrocardiography and echocardiography [146 discount reminyl line,148]. In 1970, the Mexican government honored Marker and awarded him the Order of the Aztec Eagle; staying true to his irascible nature, he declined. Genetic counselling is essential and prenatal diagnosis may be an option Neural tube defects [7,8] in selected cases. Arrhythmias in Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy Reversible cardiomyopathy as a result of acute severe illness known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy or apical ballooning syndrome or takotsubo cardiomyopathy, can be found in approximately 28% of critically ill patients [18]. Tamoxifen is used for first-line therapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer. Koller J, Wieser C, Gottardis M, et al: Thyroid hormones and their impact on the hemodynamic and metabolic stability of organ donors and on kidney graft function after transplantation. There is flow to the end of the left fallopian tube, although no free spill into the peritoneal cavity. Succinylcholine can cause severe hyperkalemia in a variety of clinical settings; therefore, only clinicians who are experienced with its use should administer it. The vomiting and retching may be relieved by passage of a nasogastric tube, but neither the vomiting nor gastric decompression results in reduction of the abdominal pain. The early use of norepinephrine in patients with septic shock can increase preload, rendering the fluid-responsive patient fluid unresponsive [172]. More prolonged loss while the superior parietal optic radiation has fibers for can be seen with posterior reversible edema syndrome, the inferior nasal field. Severely ill septic patients who are immunocompromised also warrant combination antimicrobial therapy [32]. In the latter, one does not see the stigmata of chronic adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency but rather hypotension, a mild hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and hyperkalemia, together with a delirium or stupor that fluctuates erratically [44]. For a secure closure, the interatrial groove tissue should be included for its buttressing effect. As function deteriorates, blood levels cystic kidney disease, congenital nephrotic syndrome, of these markers rise. Clinical practice Peritoneal Dialysis recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease in Peritoneal dialysis is the preferred modality of dialysis children. Basal meningeal and gastric aspirate further increase the chance of a positive enhancement is most sensitive (89%). As with activated charcoal, the efficacy of gastric lavage decreases as the time between ingestion and treatment increases. These infections begin abruptly with severe pain and may spread rapidly onto the anterior abdominal wall, into the gluteal muscles, and, in males, onto the scrotum and penis. However, in a major disaster, because resources become increasingly limited, health care providers and leaders must have a plan in place to change the focus of critical care from the needs of the individual to the needs of the population as a whole. Hemostasis of the Posterior Suture Line Care must be taken to ensure hemostasis of the aortic suture line, especially posteriorly, because this is relatively inaccessible after the repair is completed. Hybrid cells are selected and cloned, and the antibody specificity of the clones is determined. Control of pharyngeal gonorrhoea is particu- ommend ceftriaxone as the only first‐line antibiotic larly important as most antibiotic resistance develops at remaining to treat gonorrhoea effectively (including this site [127]. This happens as a result of alteration of vagal tone or pharmacologic agents such as parasympathomimetics, β-Blockers, calcium antagonists, and digitalis. However, if the core body temperature is not lowered early in the course, the patient may be left with sequelae similar to those seen in hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy. Although this dramatic presentation is classic, it is important to note that a rise in temperature of 1°C above baseline may be the sole initial presentation of a hemolytic transfusion reaction and necessitates the cessation of transfusion of that unit of red cells and initiation of workup for transfusion reaction. More common Less common Meconium history—normal Delayed passage follow-up schedule Onset beyond infancy From birth • monthly follow up till regular bowel movement is Fecal soiling Spurious diarrhea achieved: Check diary, physical and rectal examination. Effective management of the menopause is taking on 6) Rigid cut‐offs in duration of therapy should be ever‐increasing importance in view of our ageing popu­ avoided, with regular reappraisal (at least annually) of lation, which is increasing both the health and economic the benefits and risks for each individual. Renal Women who have not previously been treated with Although glomerular capillary endotheliosis is a classic antihypertensives should have their blood pressure mon- pathological feature of pre‐eclampsia and relative oligu- itored four times daily while an inpatient and should be ria is common in the early postpartum period, these fea- treated if blood pressure is above 150/100mmHg. The demographics of the intestinal transplants have changed significantly over the last decade with an increased age of recipient and frequency of isolated intestinal transplantations. Since secondary bacterial infection of marked tachypnea (> 60/min), coughing and choking with the lower respiratory tract are unusual in children with feeds, vomiting, decreased intake, apneic episodes and bronchiolitis. In the acute phase, hypoglycemia, coagulopathy, organ Asia in neonates-an alarmingly short review. Administration of naloxone can only partially reverse tramadol toxicity and has been associated with an increased risk of seizures. An academic achievement of up to 2 family history, are important red flags for dyslexia. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Reoperation may be necessary for an unstable patient, or for a patient with peritonitis or failure to resolve nonoperatively. The most common cause of acute aortic regurgitation is infective endocarditis; therefore, if a high-pitched diastolic murmur radiating along the left sternal border is heard, the initial workup should always include blood cultures. Patient characteristics and lesion characteristics are both considered when selecting laser parameters for treatment and each chapter discusses how these factors are taken into consideration. Pooled whole blood–derived platelets are generally transfused in six-unit increments from five to six different blood donors. The critically ill, intubated patient should have an endotracheal aspirate sent for culture, and Legionella and pneumococcal urinary antigen testing should be considered. Chronic administration results in fat redistribution, including loss of fat from the extremities, fat accumulation in the abdomen and the base of the neck (“buffalo hump”; ure 34. Fukumoto Y, Tsutsui H, Tsuchihashi M, et al: the incidence and risk factors of cholesterol embolization syndrome, a complication of cardiac catheterization: a prospective study. This initiative also asserted that health-care providers in critical care require education and skills training in the practice of high-quality palliative care. These include unusual watchfulness, decreased vocalization, Apart from the details of pregnancy, delivery and perinatal lack of cuddliness, head banging, rocking movements details, some points need special mention. Unlike vancomycin, which is minimally bound to protein, teicoplanin is 90% protein-bound, accounting for its slow renal clearance.

Owing to poor abscess penetration order reminyl pills in toronto, consider alternative or dual therapy for patients with bubonic disease purchase reminyl 8 mg with amex. Legionella and community-acquired pneumonia: a review of current diagnostic tests from a clinician’s viewpoint buy reminyl 4 mg free shipping. The most common infections following liver transplantation are pulmonary infections, superficial incisional wound infections, and deeper, organ space intra-abdominal infections [85, 87]. Transcutaneous external pacemakers have been used to treat bradyasystolic cardiac arrest, symptomatic bradyarrhythmias, and overdrive pacing of tachyarrhythmias and prophylactically for conduction abnormalities during myocardial infarction. Platelet adhesion When the endothelium is injured, platelets adhere to and virtually cover the exposed collagen of the subendothelium (ure 21. Laine L, Cook D: Endoscopic ligation compared with sclerotherapy for treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding: a metaanalysis. Poor Exposure of the Branch Pulmonary Arteries Before placing the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass, the main and right pulmonary arteries must be dissected completely free from the aorta. Routine suctioning according to a predetermined schedule may cause excessive mucosal tissue damage, excessive impairment of mucociliary clearance, unnecessary exposure to the potential risks of hypoxemia associated with the procedure, arrhythmias, atelectasis, and bronchoconstriction [3]. Initial Measures As in all emergencies, vital signs, respiration, and circulation are first stabilized and monitored; the comatose patient often requires an endotracheal tube for respiratory support and airway protection. Contact with animals is a frequent association, and ectoparasites such as scabies, lice, and fleas are proposed as possible vectors of disease [60–62]. Significant neuromuscular hyperactivity may be manifested as fasciculations, myoclonic jerks, and seizures [16,58]. Gastric lavage can directly remove ingested chemicals from the stomach and thereby prevent their absorption [45]. An analysis of 171 527 births in It is sensible that there should be a term to describe the residents of the North‐east Thames region in 1989–1991 +6 range of 41 to 41 weeks of gestation, and recently the gave an incidence of 6. Corticosteroids (see Chapter 26) inhibit the release of arachidonic acid through inhibition of phospholipase A, thereby producing2 direct anti-inflammatory properties in the airways (ure 39. The surgical treatment of these patients is usually limited to relief of recurrent effusions by subxiphoid pericardial drainage or a pericardial window procedure. At times the lesions go through stages, and • Careful history taking in such cases the presenting lesion along with relevant • Astute clinical examination evidence from the history on evolution will help clinch • Relevant laboratory work-up the diagnosis. Features of varying grades of pulmonary with significant regurgitation, the cardiac impulse is venous and arterial hypertensions are also seen. A bowel regimen should be prescribed with the initiation of the opioid since constipation is very common and can occur at any time, and tolerance to this adverse effect does not occur. Isozaki O, Satoh T, Wakino S, et al: Treatment and management of thyroid storm: analysis of the nationwide surveys. Virtually any body fluid, tissue, or organ may yield a diagnosis, particularly with clinical or laboratory abnormalities that suggest an extrapulmonary site of disease. The last followed by a premature P wave that is not conducted complex is an atrial extrasystole that has been aberrantly (nonconducted premature atrial complex or blocked atrial conducted (right bundle-branch-block pattern). The mechanism by which hypothermia produces a seemingly protective effect is not well understood, because it probably relates to a significant decrease in cerebral metabolism and a smaller injury by the no-reflow phenomenon [81], a mechanism whereby the brain is protected from injury until reperfusion. If angiography does not reveal an aneurysm, angiography may be repeated in 1 to 3 weeks; an intraluminal thrombus or extraluminal compression of a small aneurysm by subarachnoid clot can acutely interfere with angiographic visualization of aneurysms [23]. Spinal Cord Protection Techniques Spinal cord function can be monitored during the time when the aorta is clamped. Azoulay E, Mokart D, Rabbat A, et al: Diagnostic bronchoscopy in hematology and oncology patients with acute respiratory failure: prospective multicenter data. Children with tumors in the vicinity of hypothalamic-pituitary axis are prone for fluids and electrolytes abnormalities during perioperative period. Interatrial Groove Approach the left atrium is opened with an incision just posterior to the interatrial groove. Breastfeeding has a child-spacing efect, which is very important in the developing world as a means of limiting family size and providing good nutrition for infants. Glipizide or glimepiride are safer options in renal dysfunction and in elderly patients. Usually 3-8 months pass before the burden of organisms increases to a level that causes symptoms. Newborns are uniquely susceptible to hypothermia (for < 34 weeks) to 1 mg (for > 34 weeks) intramuscularly because they have a large body surface area, which causes after birth to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. However, a the total number of fetal or neonatal deaths was small, conservative approach in order to await the onset of one in the induction group and 13 in the actively man- labour is justifiable if the woman wishes, given that aged group in this most recent meta‐analysis [38]. The inciting event for a typical aortic dissection is thought to be a tear in the intima that leads to exposure of the underlying media, generally weakened by medial degeneration. Once the mediastinal pleura tears, amylase of salivary origin appears in the fluid in high concentration [68]. Symptomatic occlusion requiring surgical intervention occurs in fewer than 1% of cases, but can be catastrophic with tissue loss or amputation of the hand [23]. Quantitative culturing of the first void urine, midstream urine, and prostatic massage sample or post-prostatic massage urine sample are recommended to differentiate cystitis and urethritis from chronic prostatitis. Early out-of-hospital non- invasive ventilation is superior to standard medical treatment in patients with acute respiratory failure: a pilot study. The pharmacology, monitoring, and appropriate reversal of anticoagulant drugs are reviewed in detail in Chapter 110. Suicidal behavior and suicidal ideation have been identified as a risk with antiseizure medications. If the patient is recently sun exposed or has tanned skin, it is advisable to wait 1 month before treating to reduce the risk of pigmentary complications. As criteria for brain death vary from state to state, and procedures to determine brain death differ among institutions, it is important to be familiar with the guidelines in your institution [12]. This ultimately results in a small but physiologically important increase in free Ca2+, thereby leading to increased cardiac contractility. Peripheral effects Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting occur because of stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone (ure 8. Echocardiography was performed and demonstrated normal right and left ventricular size with hyperdynamic systolic function of both ventricles (Video 29.

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