By W. Vandorn. Robert Morris College, Pittsburgh, PA. 2019.

A An IgM molecule has the potential to bind up to readily to bind more antigen 10 antigens safe mentax 15 mg, as compared to a molecule of IgG quality mentax 15 mg, C generic mentax 15 mg amex. B An anamnestic response is a secondary immune decreases the zeta potential, allowing antibody and response in which memory lymphocytes respond antigen to come closer together? Anaphylactic Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Antibodies/1 4. An A2 person may form anti-A1; an A1 person Te crossmatch was run on the Ortho Provue and will not form anti-A1 yielded 3+ incompatibility. A2 antigen will not react with anti-A from a antigen nonimmunized donor; A1 will react with any B. Te patient has an antibody to a high-frequency anti-A antigen Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental C. Te patient is an A1 with anti-A2 Blood bank/Apply principles of special procedures/ 2. Te patient may be a Bombay A person who is group A may form anti-A, but an 2 1 D. Which typing results are most likely to occur when a patient has an acquired B antigen? Anti-A 4+, anti-B-3+, A1 cells neg, B cells neg the discrepancy is in forward grouping. Anti-A 3+, anti-B neg, A1 cells neg, B cells neg washed red cells at room temperature with anti-A C. Anti-A 4+, anti-B 1+, A1 cells neg, B cells 4+ and anti-A,B will enhance reactions. Which blood group has the least amount of This may be indicative of an acquired antigen. A1 caused by a mistyping or an antibody against Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental antigens on reverse cells. Wash the cells with warm saline, autoadsorb the autoantibody, allowing a valid forward type to be serum at 4°C performed. Retype the sample using a different lot number washed cells until the autocontrol is negative. B All negative results may be due to weakened Blood bank/Evaluate laboratory and clinical data to antigens or antibodies. Which of the following results is most likely carbohydrate that reacts with: discrepant? A stem cell transplant patient was retyped when Blood bank/Evaluate laboratory data to make she was transferred from another hospital. Patient cells: Anti-A, neg Anti-B, 4+ Answers to Questions 12–17 Patient serum: A1 cells, neg B cells, neg 12. Weak subgroup A subgroups may fail to react with anti-A and require Blood bank/Evaluate laboratory data to make additional testing techniques (e. C The reverse typing should agree with the forward for the following typing results? A positive reaction is expected Patient cells: Anti-A, neg Anti-B, neg with A1 cells in the reverse group. A 61-year-old male with a history of multiple Answer to Question 18 myeloma had a stem cell transplant 3 years ago. Typing results must rely on the patient history of donor type and reveal the following: recipient type, and the present serological picture. A complete Rh typing for antigens C, c, D, E, and Answers to Questions 1–5 e revealed negative results for C, D, and E. A This individual has the D antigen and is classified as Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental Rh positive. Any genotype containing the D antigen biological characteristics/Rh typing/1 will be considered Rh positive. If a patient has a positive direct antiglobulin test, types contain the c antigen and could not be used should you perform a weak D test on the cells? Yes, Rh reagents are enhanced in protein media result from a larger quantity of precursors being Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental available to the D genes because there is no biological characteristics/Rh typing/3 competition from other Rh genes. Most weak D individuals make anti-D agglutination usually requires a 37°C incubation C. Dce/dce both may be conducted at room temperature Blood bank/Evaluate laboratory data to verify test with no special enhancement needed for reaction results/Rh system/Paternity testing/2 Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Rh system/1 Answers to Questions 6–11 7. What is one possible genotype for a patient who designation is not noted in the reporting of the develops anti-C antibody? B The genotype rr (dce/dce) lacks D, C, and E antigens Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental and would be suitable for an individual who has biological characteristics/Rh typing/2 developed antibodies to all three antigens. A patient developed a combination of Rh most common Rh-negative genotype and is found in antibodies: anti-C, anti-E, and anti-D. If an individual lacks parts of C, E, and D antigens the antigen, he or she may make antibodies to the B. A DcE/DcE (R2R2) is not possible because R2 can be 0 0 antigens inherited only from the mother and is not present in D. Rh0 results in a fetal maternal bleed Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental C. D antigen strength decreases during pregnancy biological principles/Rh typing/1 D. D antigen strength increases during pregnancy Blood bank/Apply knowledge of biological Answers to Questions 12–18 characteristics/Rh testing/3 12. What antibodies could an R1R1 make if exposed to with no previous history, a false-positive weak D test R2R2 blood? What does the genotype —/— represent in the antibodies when exposed to R2R2 cells (DcE/DcE). Total Rh from either genetic suppression of the Rh genes or Blood bank/Evaluate laboratory data to make inheritance of amorphic genes at the Rh locus. A An Rh-negative control (patient cells in saline or procedures/Rh system/2 6% albumin) should be run if a sample appears to 16. The Wiener designation hr´ denotes c, hr˝ denotes e, and Blood bank/Evaluate laboratory data to verify test Rh0 is D. Tere are multiple alleles at a single complex locus that determine each Rh antigen D. Te antigens are named D, C, E, c, and e Blood bank/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological principles/Rh system/2 4.

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Within three weeks I had reliable data re- garding the necessary level of electrical treatment purchase mentax 15 mg line. It is not as if you had to use house current which would kill you buy mentax 15 mg online, along with the parasite generic 15mg mentax free shipping. Selective Electrocution In twenty minutes (three minutes at six different frequencies) a whole family could get rid of this parasite. Cancer cases showed that in a few hours the universal cancer marker, ortho- phospho-tyrosine could be banished from their bodies by killing this same parasite. Most cases of pain got immediate relief if I could identify the correct “bug” and have its frequency found by the next office visit. This seemed to be absolute proof that living things had an essential high frequency output of some kind of energy. If I could kill something as large as an Ascaris worm or intestinal fluke, then perhaps I could kill something even larger, like an earthworm or flea, something I could see with my own eyes in- stead of having to imagine its demise inside my body. Ten minutes at a frequency chosen near the top of their broadcast range seemed to anesthetize them. There was no need to experiment, though, because the parasites we want to kill have characteristic frequencies that do not overlap the characteristic frequencies of a human. Find the resonant frequency of a bacterium, virus or parasite using a slide or dead bit. Treat the living invaders inside the human body with this frequency and in a matter of minutes they are no longer transmitting their own bandwidths—they are dead or sick and will be removed by our white blood cells. Perhaps the department of defense would use this knowledge and develop super high voltage de- vices to kill people (“enemies”) somewhere in the world. Possibly a way could be found to shield yourself from frequencies harmful to humans by wearing a choke (inductor) coil which suppresses these frequencies. Meanwhile, people must be alerted that they can safely kill their invaders and heal their chronic illnesses. Invaders that have been increasing exponentially due to lowered immunity in recent decades. Remember, though, that the true challenge is not to kill our invaders but to regain our health and immunity. The ship of “progress”, of increasingly complex, processed foods and products, must be turned around and simplicity become our goal. Or will daily parasite and pathogen electrocution become another crutch that makes us just enough better that we can continue a detri- mental lifestyle? Perhaps it is the same energy as the Asian chi; perhaps it is merely related to it. Perhaps it is the energy that runs along the meridians discovered eons ago by Asian practitioners. Perhaps it is the energy that faith healers and religious teachers know how to harness, perhaps not. Perhaps it is the energy that psychics perceive and that drives occult phenomena, perhaps not. What is truly amazing is that ordinary persons have discov- ered such energy well ahead of scientists. Persons using the “art” of kinesiology, pendulums, radionics, dousing rods and many other forms of “strange energy” have no doubt harnessed a part of this bioradiation. It is a tribute to the generally high intelligence of common people and to their open-mindedness that they discovered this energy, in spite of opposition from scientists of today. Over a century ago the scientists of Europe proposed the existence of a “life force” called “élan vitale. Young scientists, (including myself) were systematically taught to scorn this idea. Of course we were also taught that a good scientist was unemo- tional, does not scorn ideas, has a completely open mind, and does not rule something out until it is disproved to their satis- faction. The youthfulness of college years is so susceptible to prejudices of all kinds, and the desire for acceptance is so great, that special effort needs to be made to teach neutrality. I was indeed inspired with the phrase “search for truth” but then promptly led down the path of “search for acceptance. Only its frequency was noticed and caught (modulated) in such a way as to be measurable. These amazing properties are due to the capacitive and inductive properties of objects all around us, including our- selves. For years I used a commercial frequency generator to “zap” one pathogen after another. First I made a chart of the frequencies for most of the bacteria and viruses in my collection (over 80, see page 561). Even persons with a simple cold typically had a dozen they tested positive to (not just Adenovirus). Next it was time to tune in the frequency generator to a dozen frequencies for three minutes each. Until you killed your roundworm and your virus, you would keep getting the virus back promptly. He programmed a computer controlled frequency gen- erator to automatically cover all the frequencies populated by all the parasites, viruses, and bacteria, from 290,000 Hz to 470,000 Hz. Arthritis pain, eye pain, colds were improved, but not completely cured overnight. Months later I would find that organisms were transmitting as low as 170,000, and as high as 690,000 Hz. To cover this larger range, spending three minutes for every 1000 Hz, would take 26 hours. But even this method of zapping was not 100% effective for reasons yet to become clear. The purpose was to enable everyone to kill the intestinal fluke at 434,000 Hz with a low cost device. Enough benefit would be derived from zapping at various frequencies that I thought everyone should know how to make one. When I tested it on one of my own bacteria, however, three others at much different frequencies died also! When I tested it on others, even though they had dozens of pathogens, all were killed! Subsequent testing showed it was not due to some unique design, or special wave form produced by the device.

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The patient must be clearance/3 kept well hydrated during the test to prevent this generic mentax 15mg online. Urine creatinine discount mentax 15 mg visa, serum creatinine purchase mentax 15mg free shipping, height, of the high frequency of sample collection errors weight associated with measuring creatinine clearance. Serum creatinine, height, weight, age formula, and reported along with the serum or D. Cystatin C is an inhibitor Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological of cysteine proteases. Being only 13 kilodaltons, it characteristics/Biochemical/1 is completely filtered by the glomerulus then 8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase causes retention of cystatin C in plasma and levels B. C The peroxidase-coupled enzymatic assay of creatinine procedures/Biochemical/1 is based upon the conversion of creatinine to creatine by creatinine amidohydrolase (creatininase). The enzyme creatinine amidinohydrolase (creatinase) then hydrolyzes creatine to produce sarcosine and urea. The enzyme sarcosine oxidase converts sarcosine to glycine producing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. Peroxidase then catalyzes the oxidation of a dye (4-aminophenazone and phenol) by the peroxide forming a red-colored product. This method is more specific than the Jaffe reaction, which tends to overestimate creatinine by about 5% in persons with normal renal function. Select the primary reagent used in the Jaffe Answers to Questions 9–12 method for creatinine. Sodium nitroprusside and phenol The reaction is nonspecific; ketones, ascorbate, D. Phosphotungstic acid proteins, and other reducing agents contribute to the final color. Interference from other reducing substances can be reducing substances such as pyruvate, protein, and partially eliminated in the Jaffe reaction by: ascorbate cause positive interference. Measuring the timed rate of product formation immediately, and proteins react slowly. Performing a sample blank reading the absorbance at 20 and 80 seconds and Chemistry/Identify sources of error/Biochemical/2 using the absorbance difference minimizes the 11. Te calibrator used for cystatin C is traceable to However, this requires the enzymes creatininase, the National Bureau of Standards calibrator creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. Cystatin C assays have a lower coefficient of produces hydrogen peroxide from sarcosine, which is variation than plasma creatinine oxidized. Performing a sample blank give comparable results does not correct for interfering substances that react with alkaline picrate. Chronic hepatitis plasma creatinine results than the Jaffe method in Chemistry/Identify sources of error/Biochemical/ 3 persons with normal renal function. However, they tend to give higher clearance results than for inulin or iohexol clearance because some creatinine is secreted by the renal tubules. C Cystatin C is eliminated almost exclusively by the kidneys and plasma levels are not dependent on age, sex, or nutritional status. However, plasma levels are affected by some drugs, including those used to prevent renal transplant rejection. Increased plasma levels have been reported in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. A sample of amniotic fluid collected for fetal lung Answers to Questions 13–17 maturity studies from a woman with a pregnancy compromised by hemolytic disease of the newborn 13. Te specimen is contaminated with blood is routinely measured in 24-hour urine samples to B. Bilirubin has interfered with the measurement of determine the completeness of collection. Creatinine is signal was being processed by the analyzer also used to evaluate fetal maturity. Te fluid is urine from accidental puncture of progresses, more creatinine is excreted into the the urinary bladder amniotic fluid by the fetus. Although a level above 2 mg/dL is not a specific indicator of maturity, a level Chemistry/Identify sources of error/Biochemical/3 below 2 mg/dL indicates immaturity. A Measurement of urinary microalbumin concentration creatinine concentration as a reference? Urinary urea strip test for creatinine is available that measures the Chemistry/Apply principles of general laboratory ability of a creatinine–copper complex to break down procedures/Creatinine/1 H2O2, forming a colored complex. Te breakdown of complex carbohydrates urinary metanephrines, vanillylmandelic acid, and homovanillic acid are reported per gram creatinine Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological when measured in infants and children in order to characteristics/Biochemical/1 compensate for differences in body size. D Urea is completely filtered by the glomeruli but disease reabsorbed by the renal tubules at a rate dependent D. Urea levels are a failure sensitive indicator of renal disease, becoming Chemistry/Correlate laboratory data with physiological elevated by glomerular injury, tubular damage, or processes/Biochemical/2 poor blood flow to the kidneys (prerenal failure). Patient was not fasting (prerenal failure), glomerular filtration decreases and tubular reabsorption increases due to slower filtrate Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to determine flow. Urinary urea measurements may be used for ratio to be greater than 10:1 in prerenal failure. A negative balance Chemistry/Correlate laboratory data with physiological (excretion exceeds intake) occurs in stress, starvation, processes/Biochemical/2 fever, cachexia, and chronic illness. Potential with a urea-selective electrode per day + 4), where 4 estimates the protein B. Te timed rate of increase in conductivity nitrogen lost in the feces per day and dividing C. B A conductivity electrode is used to measure the Chemistry/Apply principles of special procedures/ increase in conductance of the solution as urea is Biochemical/1 hydrolyzed by urease in the presence of sodium carbonate. Alternatively, Chemistry/Apply principles of basic laboratory the ammonium ions produced can be measured procedures/Biochemical/1 using an ion-selective electrode. This is Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological transaminated, forming phenylpyruvic acid, characteristics/Aminoaciduria/1 which is excreted in the urine. Wilson’s disease (inherited Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ ceruloplasmin deficiency) causes hepatic failure.

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At this stage of development purchase 15 mg mentax with mastercard, the immune system is un- able to recognize bacterial immunogens as foreign buy discount mentax 15 mg. Molecular mimicry refers to the presence of molecules on the surface of bacteria that are not recognized as foreign by the im- mune system purchase 15mg mentax with visa. Examples of this strategy are the hyaluronic acid capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes or the neuraminic acid capsule of Escherichia coli K1 and serotype B Neisseria meningitidis. Mucosal immunity to gonococci depends on antibodies in the secretions of the urogenital mucosa that attach to the immunodominant seg- ment of the pilin, thus blocking adhesion of gonococci to the target cells. The gonococcal genome has many other pil genes besides the pilE without promoters, i. Intracellular homologous recombination of conserved regions of silent pil genes and corre- sponding sequences of the expressed gene results in pilE genes with changed cas- settes. Some bacteria are characterized by a pronounced variability of their immunogens (= immune antigens) due to the genetic variability of the structural genes coding the antigen proteins. This results in production of a series of antigen variants in the course of an infection that no longer “match” with the antibodies to the “old” antigen. Examples: gonococci can modify the primary structure of the pilin of their attachment Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. The borreliae that cause relapsing fevers have the capacity to change the structure of one of the adhesion proteins in their outer 1 membrane (vmp = variable major protein), resulting in the typical “recur- rences” of fever. Similarly, meningococci can change the chemistry of their capsule polysaccharides (“capsule switching”). Mucosal secretions contain the secretory antibodies of the sIgA1 class responsible for the specific local immunity of the mucosa. Classic mucosal parasites such as gonococci, meningococci and Haemophilus influ- enzae produce proteases that destroy this immunoglobulin. Clinical Disease The clinical symptoms of a bacterial infection arise from the effects of dama- ging noxae produced by the bacteria as well as from excessive host immune responses, both nonspecific and specific. Immune reactions can thus poten- tially damage the host’s health as well as protect it (see Immunology, p. Obligate intracellular parasites (rickettsiae, chlamy- diae) may kill the invaded host cells when they reproduce. Pathogenic bacteria can produce a variety of toxins that are either the only pathogenic factor (e. One aspect the clas- sification and nomenclature of these toxins must reflect is the type of cell affected: cytotoxins produce toxic effects in many different host cells; neu- rotoxins affect the neurons; enterotoxins affect enterocytes. The structures and mechanisms of action of the toxins are also considered in their classifica- tion (Table 1. They consist of a binding subunit “B” responsible for binding to specific surface receptors on target host cells, and a catalytic subunit “A” representing the active agent. These toxins disrupt biological membranes, either by attaching to them and assembling to form pores, or in the form of phos- pholipases that destroy membrane structure enzymatically. These antigens stimulate T lymphocytes and macrophages to produce excessive amounts of harmful cytokines. Proteolytic Increased muscle (Clostridium (synapses) cleavage of protein compo- tone; cramps in tetani) nents from the neuroexo- striated muscula- cytosis apparatus in the syn- ture. They must then be secreted through the cytoplasmic membrane, and in Gram-negative bacteria through the outer membrane as well. This interaction results in the opening of a secretion channel of the so-called “needle complex” (ex- tending through both the cytoplasmic Outer membrane and outer membrane) and membrane in formation of a pore in the mem- brane of the target cell. Through Periplasmic space the pore and channel, cytotoxic mole- cules are then translocated into the Inner membrane cytosol of the target cell where they, for example, inhibit phagocyto- sis andcytokine production (in macro- phages), destroy the cytoskeleton of the target cell, and generally work to induce apoptosis. The endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide) 1 plays an important role in the manifestation of clinical symptoms. On the one hand, it can activate complement by the alternative pathway and, by releas- ing the chemotactic components C3a and C5a, initiate an inflammatory reaction at the infection site. On the other hand, it also stimulates macro- phages to produce endogenous pyrogens (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis fac- tor), thus inducing fever centrally. Production of these and other cytokines is increased, resulting in hypotension, intravasal coagulation, thrombocyte ag- gregation and stimulation of granulopoiesis. Increased production of cyto- kines by macrophages is also induced by soluble murein fragments and, in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, by teichoic acids. Inflammation results from the combined effects of the nonspecific and specific immune responses of the host organism. Activation of complement by way of both the classic and alternative pathways induces phagocyte migration to the infection site. The development of typical granulomas and caseous necrosis in the course of tuberculosis are the results of excessive reaction by the cellular immune system to the immunogens of tuberculosis bacteria. Textbooks of general pathology should be consulted for detailed descriptions of these inflamma- tory processes. Regulation of Bacterial Virulence Many pathogenic bacteria are capable of living either outside or inside a host and of attacking a variety of host species. Proliferation in these differing en- vironments demands an efficient regulation of virulence, the aim being to have virulence factors available as required. Examples of this include pilin gene variability involving intracellu- lar recombination as described above in gonococci and inverting a leader se- quence to switch genes on and off in the phase variations of H antigens in salmonellae (see p. The principle of transcriptional control of virulence determinants is essentially the same as that applying to the regu- lation of metabolic genes, namely repression and activation (see p. A specific concentration of iron in the cytoplasm ac- tivates the diphtheria toxin regulator (DtxR). The resulting active repres- sor prevents transcription of the toxin gene by binding to the promoter Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. In many cases, several virulence genes are switched on and off by the same regulator protein. The viru- lence determinants involved are either components of the same operon or are located at different genome sites.

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This hardening results from a build-up of a ry as well as a physical examination is essential in plaquelike substance composed of cholesterol 15mg mentax for sale, the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease order 15 mg mentax with mastercard. Over time order 15 mg mentax, some of the most serious cardiovascular diseases it builds up on the inside lining (tunica intima) have few signs and symptoms, when they occur of the arterial walls. Eventually, the plaque hard- they may include chest pain (angina), palpita- ens (atherosclerosis), causing the vessel to lose tions, breathing difficulties (dyspnea), cardiac elasticity. The location, duration, pattern of becomes difficult for blood to pass through the radiation, and severity of pain are important qual- blocked areas. Tissues distal to the occlusion ities indifferentiating the various forms of cardio- become ischemic. In many instances, blood hem- vascular disease and are sometimes characteristic orrhages into the plaque and forms a clot of specific disorders. When a throm- nature of the signs and symptoms of cardiovascu- bus travels though the vascular system it is called lar disorders, invasive and noninvasive tests an embolus (plural, emboli). Emboli in venous cir- are usually required to confirm or rule out a sus- culation may cause death. Sometimes cardiovascular disorders, the medical services of a plaque weakens the vessel wall to such an extent specialist may be warranted. Cardiology is the that it forms a bulge (aneurysm) that may medical specialty concerned with disorders of the rupture. The physician who treats Arteriosclerosis usually affects large- or medium- these disorders is called a cardiologist. One of the monly use endarterectomy to treat carotid artery major risk factors for developing arteriosclerosis is disease, peripheral arterial disease, and diseases of an elevated cholesterol level (hypercholesterolemia). Other major risk factors include age, family history, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes. Coronary Artery Disease Treatment for arthrosclerosis varies depending on the location and symptoms. In one method, In order for the heart to function effectively, it occluding material and plaque are removed from must receive an uninterrupted supply of blood. Plaque reduces Blood flow blood flow is blocked Area of Area of ischemia infarct Figure 8-8. Its major cause is the accumulation of it releases several highly specific cardiac enzymes, plaque which causes the walls of the artery to including troponin T, troponin I, and creatinine kin- harden (arteriosclerosis). Arrhythmia with an small incision in the skin and into the diseased abnormally rapid heart rate (tachycardia) or an blood vessel. Sometimes, the physician will place a hol- low, thin mesh tube (stent) on the balloon and position it against the artery wall. It remains in place after the balloon catheter is removed and keeps the artery opened. One end of the graft ves- sel is sutured to the aorta and the other end is sutured to the coronary artery below the blocked area. It may be noninfective in nature, caused by thrombi formation, or infective, caused by various microorganisms. Although the infecting organism can be viral or fungal, the usual Area of Left anterior blockage descending culprit is a bacterium. Bacteria traveling in the vein, causing swelling in surrounding tissues the bloodstream (bacteremia) may lodge in the (edema). Varicose veins may develop in almost any weakened heart tissue and form small masses called part of the body, including the esophagus (varices) vegetations composed of fibrin and platelets. Vegetations may dis- reticular veins, which appear as small blue veins lodge (embolize) and travel to the brain, lungs, kid- seen through the skin, and “spider” veins (teleang- neys, or spleen. Scaring of the valves may cause iectases), which look like short, fine lines, starburst them to narrow (stenosis) or not close properly clusters, or weblike mazes. Although medications may prove Varicose veins of the legs are not typically painful helpful, if heart failure develops as a result of dam- but may be unsightly in appearance. The same methods are Patients who are susceptible to endocarditis are used as an elective procedure to improve the appear- given antibiotic treatment to protect against infec- ance of the legs. Treatment of mild cases of varicose tion prior to invasive procedures (prophylactic treat- veins includes use of elastic stockings and rest peri- ment). Because many bacteria normally found in the ods during which the legs are elevated. Although rare, the most common primary tumor of the heart is composed of mucous connective tis- Varicose Veins sue (myxoma); however, these tumors tend to be Varicose veins are enlarged, twisted, superficial benign. They develop when the valves of the veins endocardium of the heart chambers, most arise in do not function properly (incompetent) and fail to the left atrium. Excess fluid eventually seeps from edema), and systemic problems, including joint Normal vein with Varicose vein with competent valves incompetent valves Venous Backflow blood flow and pooling back to of blood in the heart superficial vein Blood Figure 8-11. The most common tumors are usually identified and located by two- type originates in a darkly pigmented mole or dimensional echocardiography. Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Terms This section introduces diagnostic, symptomatic, and related terms and their meanings. Pulmonary increased (used primarily embolism may be life threatening if a large portion of the lung is damaged. Unless treatment is received within 5 to 10 minutes, ven- tricular f ibrillation causes death. Because of the possibility of valve infection, prophylactic treatment with antibiotics is suggested before undergoing invasive procedures such as dental work. Medical attention should be sought if palpitations are accompanied by pain, dizziness, overall weakness, or shortness of breath. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures This section introduces procedures used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular disorders. The area not receiving suff icient oxygen is visualized by decreased uptake of the isotope. The contrast dye outlines the coronary arteries and shows narrowing, stenosis, or blockage. Reflected echoes are then converted to electrical -graphy: process of recording impulses and displayed on a screen. A radiopaque contrast dye can be injected to provide greater detail of body structures.

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